Special issues: See the annotated bibliography

A dedicated journal: the , founded in 2006

Books: See the annotated bibliography section C2

Volkow, N. D., Tomasi, D., Wang, G. J., Fowler, J. S., Telang, F., Goldstein, R. Z., Alia–Klein, N., et al. (2011). Positive emotionality is associated with baseline metabolism in orbitofrontal cortex and in regions of the default network. , (8), 818–825. doi:10.1038/mp.2011.30 Positive emotionality (PEM) (personality construct of well–being, achievement/motivation, social and closeness) has been associated with striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability in healthy controls. As striatal D2 receptors modulate activity in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and cingulate (brain regions that process natural and drug rewards), we hypothesized that these regions underlie PEM. To test this, we assessed the correlation between baseline brain glucose metabolism (measured with positron emission tomography and [(18)F] fluoro–deoxyglucose) and scores on PEM (obtained from the multidimensional personality questionnaire or MPQ) in healthy controls (n=47). Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses revealed that PEM was positively correlated (P(c)

2). Foundational concepts/Definitions

Merit and demerit of internet short essay outline

Kaiser, R. B., & Overfield, D. V. (2011). Strengths, strengths overused, and lopsided leadership. , (2), 89–109. doi:10.1037/a0024470. Riding the growth of positive psychology, strengths–based development has become a popular approach to helping managers become better leaders. This school of thought advises managers to maximize their natural talents rather than try to correct weaknesses. This article takes issue with this advice and considers how it can, ironically, lead managers to turn their strengths into weaknesses through overuse as well as cause them to neglect shortcomings that can degrade the performance of employees, teams, and organizations. Hypotheses are developed about the relationship between specific personal strengths and leadership behaviors as well as the joint tendencies to overdo behaviors related to one's strengths while underdoing opposing but complementary behaviors. Strong support was found for the tendency of managers to do too much of the behaviors related to their strengths and more modest support was found for the tendency of managers to do too little of opposing but complementary behaviors. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of future research needs and how to apply the strengths approach in a way that minimizes downside risk in developmental applications.

Merit and demerit of internet short essay outline overpopulation is a myth article

"Enabling factors are "naturally-occurring" features of the person or environment that make the strength more likely to occur. Societal institutions are existing social groups thought to encourage the strength among its members. Deliberate interventions refer to programs undertaken by psychologists, educators, and others with the explicit goal of building the strength. Taken together, these ideas provide for each strength a starting point for planning how to teach that strength" (Park & Peterson, 2009, p. 63).

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Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2001). "Positive psychology: An introduction": Reply. , (1), 89–90. doi:10.1037//0003–066X.56.1.89. Responds to comments by A. C. Bohart and T Greening, S. B. Shapiro, G. Bacigalupe, R. Walsh, W. C. Compton, C. L. McLafferty and J. D. Kirylo, N. Abi–Hashem, A. C. Catania, G. K. Lampropoulos, and T. M. Kelley (see records 2002–15384–010, 2002–15384–011, 2002–15384–012, 2002–15384–013, 2002–15384–014, 2002–15384–015, 2002–15384–016, 2002–15384–017, 2002–15384–018, and 2002–15384–019, respectively) on the January 2000, Vol 55(1) special issue of the American Psychologist dedicated to positive psychology. M. E. P. Seligman and M. Csikszentmihalyi expand on some of the critical themes discussed in the commentaries.

The role of positive emotions in positive psychology:

Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. , (1), 5–14. doi:10.1037/0003–066X.55.1.5. A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self–regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.

"Positive psychology has three pillars:

Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Helping American soldiers in time of war: Reply to comments on the comprehensive soldier fitness special issue. , (7), 646-7. doi:10.1037/a0025156