I Can Tolerate Anything Except The Outgroup | Slate …
The anatomy of habilines (members of ) spoke volumes about their lives. They had brains of about 640 ccs, with an estimated range of 600 to 700 ccs, nearly 50% larger than their australopithecine ancestors and nearly twice that of chimps, and the artifacts they left behind denoted advanced cognitive abilities. They stood about 1.5 meters tall (five feet), and weighed around 50 kilograms (120 pounds). With the first appearance of habilines about 2.3 mya, Oldowan culture spread widely in East Africa and also radiated to South Africa. Habiline skeletal adaptations to tree climbing meant that they slept there at night, just as their ancestral line did. Their teeth were large, which meant that they heavily chewed their food. Habiline sites have large rock hammers that they pounded food on, to break bones and crack nuts. Those habiline stone hammers may well have also been used to soften meat, roots, and other foods before eating them. Sleeping in trees meant that habilines were preyed on, mostly by big cats. Today, the leopard is the only regular predator of chimpanzees and gorillas, and at times. But if modern studies of chimpanzees are relevant, our ancestors engaged in warfare for the past several million years, and , so simian intra-species mass killings may have tens of millions of years of heritage. Habilines were not only wary of predators, but also of members of their own species.
Why Nerds are Unpopular - Paul Graham
The USA finished off humanity’s greatest war by dropping history’s most destructive weapons on cities, and then . In the wake of dropping nuclear weapons on women and children, the USA had unprecedented global hegemony, controlled both sides of both major oceans, and possessed half of the world’s wealth and industrial capacity. Then began the , which was an era of economic prosperity never seen before or since, and I had the good fortune to be born in the midst of it. Above all else, it was an economic event born of cheap energy and has been called the Golden Age of American Capitalism. When energy ceased being cheap in the 1970s, the boom ended and the long decline set in, not just for the USA, but the world in general, which is the next chapter's subject.
This chapter falls at about this essay's midpoint, and humanity's role in this story has yet to be told. As I conceived this essay, studied for it, wrote it, edited it, and had numerous allies help out, an issue repeatedly arose regarding the half of this essay just completed, and can be summarized with: "What was the point?" Not everybody asked it and some understood, but others wondered openly and sometimes subtly what the purpose of this essay's first half was (and some asked if the essay had any point at all and considered my effort a waste of time). This chapter is my reply, and I think it is important to understand.
The Law of Accelerating Returns | KurzweilAI
The root cause of anti-Semitism lies in the strength of Jewish identity. Like any group with a strong focus on in group/out group identity, constant reference to differences invites constant awareness of differences. It is by no means a problem unique to Judaism and therefore can never be resolved as long as it is thought of as a unique or discrete Jewish issue. If Jewish leaders and writers spent more time and effort drawing comparison of their struggles to those of others, and less time focusing on just Jewish persecution, we can isolate the most ignorant and hateful sources of anti-Semitism from the mainstream. Jewish people have just as deep of a history of contribution and collaboration with other cultures as they do of persecution, and focusing on the similarities rather than the differences is the only useful way forward. Easier said than done, but worth the effort, for any group or culture.
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The collective dimensions of warfare could be more fullyexplored. Several philosophers have considered how soldiers “acttogether” when they fight (Zohar 1993; Kutz 2005; Bazargan2013). But few have reflected on whether group agency is present andmorally relevant in war. And yet it is superficially very natural todiscuss wars in these terms, especially in evaluating the war as awhole. When the British parliament debated in late 2015 whether tojoin the war against ISIL in Syria and Iraq, undoubtedly each MP wasthinking also about what she ought to do. But most of themwere asking themselves what the United Kingdom ought todo. This group action might be wholly reducible to the individualactions of which it is composed. But this still raises interestingquestions: in particular, how should I justify my actions, as anindividual who is acting on behalf of the group? Must I appeal only toreasons that apply to me? Or can I act on reasons that apply to thegroup’s other members or to the group as a whole? And can Iassess the permissibility of my actions without assessing the groupaction of which they are part? Despite the prominence of collectivistthinking in war, discussion of war’s group morality is very muchin its infancy.